Brake horsepower (BHP) is the amount of work generated by a motor under ideal conditions. This work is calculated without the consideration of the effects of any auxiliary component, that may slow down the actual speed of the motor. BHP is measured within the engine's output shaft, and was originally designed to calculate and compare the output of steam engines. The horsepower was a widely adopted unit to measure the output of turbines, piston engines, electric motors, and other machinery. It is a very important unit for airplane engines and turbines. It helps the proper calculation of an engine's efficiency, in order to ensure its smooth working between the take off and landing of a flight.


The term 'horsepower' was coined by James Watt, for efficient marketing of his improved steam engine. It was used to compare the power of a horse with that of a steam engine. Later, John Smeaton estimated that a horse could produce 22,916-foot-pounds per minute, and John Desaguliers increased that to 27,500-foot-pounds per minute. Foot-pounds is an American unit for work, used to describe torque.

For its calculation, a material weighing 100 pounds was strapped to a draft horse, and it was determined that it was able to lift the weight (presumably with the help of a pulley) 330 feet per minute. As work performed by a force is the product of force and displacement of the body, so 33,000 foot-pounds represented the work performed by the horse. Hence, the rate of work (power) was calculated to be 33,000 foot-pounds per minute.

In the initial phase, horsepower was calculated by the use of an indicator, and later, by means of a De Prony brake connected to the engine's output shaft. Nowadays, engine dynamometers are used instead of a De Prony brake, to measure the BHP of an engine. However, this does not give the exact value, and the output delivered to the driving wheels is less than that obtainable at the engine's crankshaft. In general, it was found that a healthy human can produce about 1.2 hp briefly, and sustain about 0.1 hp indefinitely. 'Brake' in the term 'brake horsepower', refers to a device which was used to load an engine and hold it at a desired revolutions per minute (rpm).


As per the conventions, 1 BHP equals to:

  • 745.5 watts
  • 1.01389 ps
  • 33,000 ft lbf/min
  • 42.2 BTU/min

Other Units Similar to BHP

There are many other units similar to brake horsepower. Some of them are:

Metric Horsepower: It is denoted by the symbol hp(M), and is equal to 75 kgf-m/s or 735.498 watts.

Electrical Horsepower: It is denoted by the symbol hp(E) and is equivalent to 746 watts.

Boiler Horsepower: It is denoted by the symbol hp(S) and is approximately equivalent to 33,475 Btu/h or 9809.5 watts.

A basic understanding of the brake horsepower of a motor is the key to ensure that the output is strong enough to drive both, the motor and any auxiliary components. Its measurement makes it possible to determine the amount of work that must be produced in order to allow the motor to work efficiently with its core functions. Calculation of brake horsepower also ensures the supply of an adequate amount of power to all complimentary devices, and helps engine manufacturers to produce efficient engines that meet all safety regulations, within a given classification. Due to various reasons, the realistic capacity of the product is not reflected in normal conditions, as claimed while marketing consumer products.

The Paso Fino Horse is one of the world's most exciting breeds giving the smoothest ride in the world and attracting many riders.

The gait of the Paso Fino Horses is unique and for those of us with bad backs, bad knees, and many other problems caused by years of riding, the Paso is the ideal choice. The movement actually eases stiffness in joints and promotes good circulation. There are many things you can do with the Paso Fino Horses. They are such good weight carriers and have superb stamina, so endurance is one of their talents.

The questions that we are most often asked is why are the Paso Finos so special, and why do you love them so much? The Paso Finos are very versatile, and easy to train. The thing with the Paso Fino Horses is that they touch your heart and once they have done this there's no getting them out of your system.

They are so loving and generous. They are small horses with big hearts and big personalities. In the years I have been around these horses I have never met one with any malicious tendencies. But you can never truly understand the magic of the Paso Fino Horse until you have ridden one. The Paso Fino Horse has an isochronal, 4-beat gait, which is totally natural. This is what makes these horses so amazing. As it is a natural gait, nothing of the movement is forced, making it a smoother ride.

Not only do the Paso Finos gait, but they can also trot and canter, which shows the versatility of the breed. The Paso Fino Horse is very balanced in gait and can carry an amazing amount of weight.

The three speeds of the Paso Fino Gait are:

Slow - FINO - the movement of the legs is very fast, however the steps are short and rapid. Therefore there seems to be a great deal of energy and activity, but a very slow forward movement.

Moderate - PASO CORTO - With the speed of a working trot, this gait covers the ground more as the steps are larger than the Fino movement.

Fast - PASO LARGO - This is the speed of canter. It is the fastest speed of the gait. There is further extension of the steps, which means they can cover more ground.

The Paso Fina Horse developed in Spain through the Barb, which produced the Spanish Jennet, and the Andulasian. Columbus transported the horses to what is now the Dominican Republic. Subsequent explorers took them to Puerto Rico, Colombia, Cuba, Panama and Mexico.

These stunning horses range in size from 13.2 hh to 15.2 hh and are in every colour.

The Paso temperament is kind and gentle. Once experienced, these horses become seriously addictive. We were the first to introduce these horses to Britain and we are the foremost stud with an internationally approved breeding programme.

We hope that after meeting them you'll love them as much as we do.

It might seem amazing to some readers that they can provide the comfort they get from memory foam mattresses to their dogs too. Yes, memory foam bed for your dog is especially available for your cozy pooch. Since, your dog can also suffer from aches and pains, as we do. After all, we should give chance to our dogs to enjoy the comfort of space-technology. Memory foam dog beds are made from the same materials that are used in the finest human beds. Does this question never strike your mind while you sleep on your memory foam mattress that your dog, who is accompanying you under the same roof, has the right to have the same comfort you are having. Memory foam dog beds have the admixture of both support and comfort of regular foam with an added layer of visco elastic memory foam. Your dog does not need more than that. Many memory foam dog bed-producing companies produce memory foam dog beds in various sizes.

Memory foam dog beds are washable and are very long lasting. In the beginning, your dog may find this uncomfortable for itself for they feel comfortable sleeping on hard surface. Memory foam dog beds are also a great help for dogs who have grown old and are skinny because memory foam dog beds are quite soft and lessen the pressure on joints. Sleeping on memory foam dog bed also improves the blood circulation of a dog and gives it a sensational and comfortable feeling. Like memory foam mattresses, memory foam bed for dog can also be had using online service of memory foam dog bed producing companies. This online service can be more helpful if you are unable to find a suitable memory foam bed for your dog in your propinquity. By searching on internet, you can surely have access to a large variety of memory foam beds. Memory foam dog beds can range in price depending on the manufacturer, size and style cover you choose from $80 to as much as $250. Dog is a fast growing animal and within a year, it grows amazingly, so when you buy memory foam bed for your dog you must assume the size of your puppy that it will develop later on. And keeping that keeping in mind you must select a memory foam bed for your dog for it would be not be right to buy memory foam dog bed after every six month or so. Another factor to keep in mind when buying a small dog bed is whether your puppy is a chewer. Chewing dogs, especially those puppies having a difficult time cutting their first set of teeth, may destroy the beautiful bed you have bought them as a way of relieving the pain in their mouths. On the other hand if you are looking for a large-sized memory foam bed for your big dog. Then you must bear in mind that generally large dogs possess a protective instinct that is why it is often seen that they sleep near the front or back doors. Moreover, if you have made up your mind to buy a large-sized memory foam mattress bed for your dog then it is just like having two strings in one bow. First, large sized dog bed resembles real furniture and will give your dog feeling that it is not deprived.

A dog crate gives your dog a special place of its own within your home.

One of the many dog crates on the market could be the best friend you and your pet will ever have. While it may seem like a sort of "cage" to you and I, your animal will regard it as his own personal, indoor, dog house -- a security blanket of sorts, where he can go to sleep or escape. Travel models have the added advantage of providing the comfort of home for your animal while in different or strange surroundings.

Crates come in many different shapes, styles, and sizes. A general rule of thumb about dog crates is that they should only be big enough for your pet to stand, turn around, and lie down easily in. Ideally, it should be just large enough for the animal to sleep on its side, with its legs stretched out. When buying a travel model, measure your vehicle first to make sure it will fit, or you could be in for a nasty surprise!

So how much do dog crates cost?

You can expect to pay in the range of $50-$125 for a quality model for medium to large-sized animals. While this might seem a bit steep, keep in mind that it will most likely last your pet's entire life, and even beyond. Properly used, they can provide true happiness for both owner and pet, and the initial cost will soon be forgotten.

This can be a difficult purchase for those with growing puppies. If it's within your budget, you might want to check out the crates that include dividers, so your new crate can grow along with your puppy as time goes on.

For the largest selection, and often the best price, your best bet may be some of the bigger pet retailers on the internet. You'll find various materials, styles, and prices. Some are sturdier. Some are more convenient than others. No matter which way you go, dog crates can go a long way to providing a "home within a home" for your pet.

(PRWEB UK) 29 July 2013

The Bird fair will be celebrating its 25th anniversary this summer and this year it’s set to be bigger and better than ever. Described as the birdwatcher’s Glastonbury, the fair aims to raise funds to support the conservation efforts to protect birds’ breeding grounds.

This year the fair is particularly focusing on birds that breed in the prairies and grasslands in North America. Organised by the Leicestershire and Rutland Wildlife Trust and the RSPB, the fair will take place Friday 16th to Sunday 18th August at Rutland Nature Reserve, Egleton, Rutland, LE15 8BT.

The Garden Bird Supplies business has grown into one of the UK’s largest specialist providers of wild-bird related products by mail order. Their founding member status of the Birdcare Standards Association is an indication as to their on-going commitment to quality, enabling the business to create a reputation second to none. Many loyal customers who are successfully attracting a wonderful variety of birds to their garden have been buying from Garden Bird Supplies from day one.

The Garden Bird Supplies team will be on hand at the fair; find them in the Simon King Marquee where their Garden Bird expert Simon King will be offering advice on what is the best food and feeders to use to attract certain birds. Simon will especially be focusing on the best ways to ensure that garden birds have plenty of food this summer to help them survive the winter. After last year’s harsh and long winter birds need plenty of food and Simon will be explaining which foods to stock up on for the winter.

Debbie Smith, Marketing Manager at Garden Bird Supplies, tells a bit about the business’s philosophy on feeding the birds. “Back in the early 90’s, there was a growing recognition amongst the UK population around the falling numbers of Britain’s best-loved garden birds. The business founders felt the public could play a significant role in reversing this decline by providing year round feeding of nutritious, quality bird food across a wide network of gardens. We’ve always stayed true to a focus on real quality. We continue to receive letters every week from delighted bird lovers who have found their garden’s inundated with garden visitors since using our fine bird food. We love the opportunity to attend popular events like the forth coming Rutland Bird Fair and share our latest innovations and advice regarding bird food and accessories.”

To attend the Rutland Water Bird Fair, discounted tickets can be purchased in advance online, and early birds will get a free rare bird alert smart phone app! Find Garden Bird Supplies at The Simon King Wildlife Marquee.

If you’re interested in a free feeding guide or reading up on bird expert Simon King's latest seasonal thoughts, visit the Garden Bird Supplies website to discover one of the widest ranges of high quality birdfeed, nest boxes, feeders and Birdcare accessories, reassuringly tested for safety and effectiveness. Visit today.

Almost everyone has heard the phrase "go green." If you haven't, 'Where ya been?' You don't have to be a "tree hugger" to go green and make our planet a healthier place to live. Here are just a few ways to go green that don't take a lot of effort.

1. Don't waste. Turn off the lights, TV or radio when no one is in that particular room and save energy. Cook the right amount of food or be sure to use leftovers to cut down on food waste. Take shorter showers and don't let water run unnecessarily.

2. Recycle. Reuse shopping bags. The plastic kind can be used as small trash can liners. If you shred documents, use the shredded paper as packing material when shipping things. Reuse partially used notebooks - just rip out the used part and use the rest. Instead of throwing away printer paper that has been botched on one side, cut it up and use the front as scratch paper.

3. Buy in bulk. It's less expensive than buying single items and there is less packaging going to landfills.

4. Buy organic. Food grown organically is free of pesticides and, therefore, less toxic and healthier for humans and animals and better for the environment.

5. Buy eco friendly cleaning products. Better yet, make your own from ingredients you already have. Most cleaning products are toxic to humans and animals and not good for the environment.

6. Drive less. Plan out errands to be done all in one day and make one trip do it all.

7. Use disposable containers less often. Use regular dishes and silverware. If using a dishwasher, make sure it's full before running it. Buy cloth napkins instead of using paper towels and paper napkins.

8. Use the clothes dryer less. Hang clothes on a line outside to dry. Some of the benefits are less static cling, fresh smell and disinfection from the sun, not to mention saving money on your electric bill.

9. Use natural and organic fertilizers and natural pesticides. Start a compost pile and use that when planting flowers and gardens. Put dead leaves on gardens in the fall to make soil richer. Natural pesticides can be purchased or made from scratch.

10. Buy products that are made from recycled items. Many companies are now making products from recycled materials, including furniture, clothing, flooring, packaging materials, stationary and even dog beds, dog toys and dog clothes. The various materials used for recycling include aluminum, plastic soda bottles, reclaimed cotton, reclaimed wood, rubber and paper.

There are actually many ways to go green and make our planet less toxic. If every person would make a conscious effort to do just one thing to go green, the impact would be huge.

Comfort and luxury is not only the need for humans. The pets also need comfort and luxury. People love their doggies and they want to provide all kind of luxury to their doggies. Immense popularity of premium dog furnishing manufacturer "Poochie of Beverly Hills" proves that dog lovers want to buy all kind of necessity and luxury settings for their dogs, be it a designer dog costume, winter gears for doggies, or a comfortable pet beds.

Comfortable pet beds are a necessity for doggies. In order to keep them healthy and maintain the hygiene dog owners need to provide their doggies with enough comfort and luxury. Therefore dog owners look for the best available pet beds for their doggies. Online dog fashion boutiques present a wide variety of dog beds that offers complete comfort.

Well, there are a variety of dog bed [] available for distinguished doggies. Like humans, dog beds also come in different size, colors, and brands. Comfortable dog bed manufacturers produce a whole range of beds in different price range suiting all budgets. No matter, what type of dog bed the owners are looking, online dog fashion boutiques can provide a suitable option serving exact needs of dog owners and their loving dogs.

Well, when purchasing a dog bed dog owners should keep the following aspects in mind:

Size of bed - The size of bed matters a lot for doggies. A big sized dog need comparatively bigger bed to sleep and stretch out his body properly. Smaller beds may not provide enough comfort.

Type of bed - When buying a dog bed, one should keep the type of bed they want in mind. Whether they want a round bed or rectangular designs for their bed, it should be confirmed. Apart from that, some people prefer washable beds. So, while purchasing a dog bed, owners should clarify their needs.

Price range - The dog beds come in varying budget. Some are cheaper whereas some are expensive depending upon the brand and the materials used in making of dog beds. Therefore, dog owners should fix a budget before buying a dog bed; else they will end up overspending.

Dog bed manufacturers keep the fashion requirements of dog owners in mind and design dog beds accordingly. People can buy a dog bed matching is style and the furnishing theme of their homes. According to the space located for the dog bed as well as the type of dog for which someone is buying a dog bed, the design and model of bed can vary. However there are enough options of design and color to choose from, so why not you buy a dog bed for your loving dog today and give them the luxury and comfort of their part.

Prescott, Arizona (PRWEB) February 23, 2015

The Rover Company manufactures a Made in America Elevated Large Dog Bed and just may be the world’s finest Large Dog Bed on the market today, the frame is made of a durable, lightweight, PVC plastic that offers maximum comfort and durability for your pet.

The Rover CompanyElevated Large Dog Beds allow a full 360 degree air circulation to prevent coat matting and skin irritation, as well as providing a very comfortable resting place for your dog that even a pillow or cushion cannot match. Rover Company Elevated Dog Beds have a unique orthopedic design that reduces stress and strain on your dogs’ body while keeping them warm in the winter chill and cool in the heat and humidity of summer. Just watch as your pet plays over and under their Elevated Large Dog Bed and then curls up to take a quick nap in the sun.

Our Large Orthopedic Dog Bed won’t sustain fleas, moisture, or odor and the durable Pet Cot cover can be easily cleaned with just soap and water. The molded PVC frame and vinyl coated cover won’t splinter, flake, peel, mold, rot, rust or hold odor. Putting your Elevated Dog Bed together is a breeze. No tools are required and takes only a few simple steps to assemble and disassemble. The Large Orthopedic Dog Bed is lightweight and easily moved from one location to another, either indoors or out. These Large Orthopedic Dog Beds are easy to store and easy to carry, making it the perfect Pet Cot to take along on those family outings.

The Rover Company Large Orthopedic Dog Beds come in a variety of colors. You can choose from Autumn Fern, Birch Forest, Forest Green and Sea Isle Blue. You can also pamper your pooch with a Sheepskin Furry Dog Bed Pad or a Fleece Dog Bed Pad which is machine washable. The Large Dog Beds measures, 36” wide x 48” long and the suggested dog’s weight is 80 to 200 lbs. The portability aspects of Rovers’ Elevated Orthopedic Large Dog Beds are phenomenal, weighing in at only 16lbs. and measuring 11”x 49” x 4” when fully collapsed and stored in a plastic bag.

Rover Company specializes in high quality PVC pet products that will last a lifetime. Their Elevated Orthopedic Large Dog Beds are renowned for their long lasting, durable construction, and finest materials, and have been chosen by thousands of satisfied pet owners throughout the world.

Rovers’ Dog Beds are incredibly strong and will provide peace of mind that your dog, young or aging, will be comfortable and secure. The industrial strength materials also ensure that the Rover Company Elevated Bed will withstand years of punishment. They are the perfect strength to weight ratio and are strong enough to handle even the Puppies! The easy to clean surfaces make Rovers’ Dog Beds perfect for groomers, veterinarians, and kennels, as well as regular home use. Rover Company is proud to offer Made in America Elevated Large Dog Bed for owners of all types of pets.

Rover Company has the solution for pure comfort and reliability for all your pet’s needs. All of our products are environmentally safe, will not rust or corrode, and are portable and light weight. They are safe for pet’s teeth, hair, and skin, and no tools are required for assembly. The policies and procedures of conducting business with Rover Company will not change. We are, as we always has been, 100% committed to providing you with a level of customer service unsurpassed in the pet industry. We also do intend to continue in the direction of working hard to be green and friendly to our environment.

The betta fish is a fresh water (or tropical) fish. More specifically, bettas originate from the tropical climates of southeast Asia in the countries of Malaysia, Cambodia, and Thailand. As pets, particular attention needs to be paid to the environment in which you place them and is an important aspect of betta fish care. Gabriel Iglesias' VW Microbus Aquariums Revealed&l=3:06&vid=813895f01293b1a26bb8b4d2ab2a8109&sigr=110ous5km&sigb=12cer2dr4&sigt=11s4ispp0&sigi=11vdj4cq3" target="_blank" data-pos="2"

Because bettas are a tropical fish, they require a constant water temperature that ranges between 72 and 82 degrees Fahrenheit. Temperatures that veer outside of this range can render your fish very sluggish and lethargic. If the water dips too far below the minimum acceptable range, you make wake up one day to dead fish floating in your tank. This explains the importance of a heater for proper betta fish care.

The water in the tank may even be in the safe range most of the time without the aid of a heater; but temperatures can change quickly and typically go down during the night. Aquarium heaters take these temperature fluctuations into account. They turn on when the temperature drops below the acceptable level and turn off when no longer needed to sustain the required temperature.

If you want your betta fish to live long and healthy lives, an aquarium heater is a necessity to ensure the temperature will consistently stay within the safe range. This further explains why the tank used to house your fish be at least large enough to accommodate a mini aquarium heater. This type of heater is used for aquariums in the 2-5 gallon range.

Just be aware that many mini aquarium heaters do not have the ability to take into consideration the actual temperature of the water inside the fish tank. Without this ability, the mini heater can potentially make the water too warm, too cold, and allow wide fluctuations in the actual water temperature - none of which bodes well for the health of your bettas. For just a little more money than what you might spend for a mini heater, small adjustable heaters are available which do take the actual water temperature into consideration. This is money well spent for the health of your bettas.

In addition to a heater, a thermometer is highly suggested to make sure your heater is working properly and the temperature remains at a safe constant level. Your local pet store will be able to provide you with a variety of thin, small and economical thermometers which can be inserted on the side of the aquarium to display the temperature.

Bettas are different from other fish in that they need air. Unlike the majority of other fish that take in oxygen through their gills, bettas take in oxygen through a specialized organ known as the labyrinth organ. This organ gathers oxygen directly from the air. Because of this, bettas need constant and easy access to the water's surface. Without this access, your betta will drown. So you need to take this consideration into account when outfitting the tank your bettas are going to live in.

Also, you should make sure the temperature of the air of the room in which the tank sits is not much different from the temperature of the water inside the tank. One way you can do is this is by covering your aquarium with a glass cover or hood that ensures the air just above the surface of the tank remains warm and moist. A hood or glass cover also has the advantage of slowing down the rate of water evaporation.

The next option to consider is whether to purchase a filter or not. While not entirely necessary for a betta's survival, a filter is an excellent choice to keep the tank water clean. When choosing the right filter, keep in mind that bettas should have a minimum amount of water movement inside the tank. This means you should choose a filter that has a very low flow. This is done by selecting a filter designed for a smaller tank or adjusting an existing filter's settings to severely restrict its flow.