Male Dog Reproductive Tract;


  • Opening at the opposite end of the animal's digestive tract from the mouth.
  • Controls the expulsion of faeces.

Prostate Gland:

  • An organ that surrounds the urethra of a male at the base of the bladder.
  • Controls the release of urine, a glandular portion, which secretes an alkaline fluid  (Makes up part of the semen and enhances the motility and fertility of



  • A membranous sac that serves as the receptacle of a liquid or contains gas.


  • The membranous tube that extends from the bladder to the exterior; and that in the male conveys semen as well as urine.

Sperm Duct (Vas Deferens);

  • The duct that transports the sperm from the epididymis to the penis.

Scrotal Sac;

  • A dual-chambered protuberance of skin and muscle containing the testicles and divided by a septum.


  • The male gonad or reproductive gland, either of two oval glands, located in the scrotal sac.


  • The male organ of copulation and, excretion of urine and spermatic fluid in mammals.

Glans Penis;

  • The head of the penis.

Penis Bone( Os Penis);

  • Not present in humans but aids the dog and other species in penetration during intercourse.

Male Dog Reproductive Tract;

Reproductive tract of a Stallion;

Similarities to the male dog;

Anus (rectum), Prostate Gland, Bladder, Urethra, Sperm Duct (Vas Deferens), Scrotal Sac, Testes, Penis, Glans Penis;   - All as in the Male Dog.

Vesicular Gland;

  • The vesicular gland secretes a significant proportion of the fluid that ultimately becomes semen.

Bulb urethral Gland;

  • During sexual arousal, each gland produces a clear fluid (Pre- ejaculate) used to clear the urethra before ejaculation of sperm to reduce damage and increase sperm count.

Shaft of Penis;

  • Contains the urethra (tube in which sperm and urine are expelled through), and also the spongy tissue cavities that fill with blood to create an erection.

Tail Of Epididymis:

  • Absorbs fluid to make sperm more concentrated.


  • Secures the testis to the most inferior portion of the scrotum.

Spermatic Cord;

  • Cord-like structure in male mammals formed by the vas deferens and surrounding tissue that runs from the abdomen down to each testicle.

One of the first obvious differences between the male horse and dog reproductive system is the size, a stallion's erect penis is around 75cm and the Great Dane Dogs is around 20cm. The dog has a bone in his penis and the horse doesn't, the dog doesn't become erect until he's penetrated the bitch but the horse does. The process of mating can take up to an hour or two with dogs but it takes 5 minutes "approx" with horses.

Female dog Reproductive Tract;


  • These organs produce ova (eggs) for fertilisation and certain hormones such as oestrus.
  • The eggs develop in fluid filled sacs called follicles.


  • These tubes move the eggs from the ovaries to the uterus in about 2 days.
  • The oviducts are the place for fertilisation and maturation of the egg.


  • The dog's uterus is different to the humans due to being in the shape of a "V" and consists of two long horns and a short body this gives the foetus's more room to develop and mature.
  • The foetuses will mature here until parturition.


  • Serves as a channel from the uterus to the vagina.
  • During pregnancy the cervix will close, preventing infection and entry of harmful micro- organisms.


  • Extends from the cervix to the vulva it is muscular and very capable of dilation.


  • External part of and the opening of the reproductive tract made up of soft tissue, two vertical lips and can swell up if the bitch is on heat (ready to mate).

Reproductive tract of female horse;


  • Very much the same in the horse as in the bitch.


  • The vagina is long in the mare (nearly as long as the body of the uterus) and is remarkably distensible in length and circumference, a feature that os very beneficial during pregnancy and parturition.


  • Carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder and outside of the body through the reproductive tract.


  • A tube connecting the uterus to the vagina, closed during oestrus and pregnancy (Good indicator to when the horse is ready to breed or is in foal).

Uterine Horns;

  • The horns lie in the abdomen. This is the part of the reproductive tract where the new foal will attach at only a few days old, where the placenta will form to feed and oxygenate it and where the foal will develop until parturition.

The mare and bitches reproductive tract are very similar in appearance whereas the horses is much larger in size. The bitch's reproductive tract is made for carrying multiple foetuses and so the uterus is very stretchy. The mare is carrying a foal which is much larger to her in comparison to a puppy to a dog and so has a strong and stretchy uterus. Both the horse and dog have uterus's with horns this is an advantage due to carrying either large or multiple offspring.

Task 2;

Role of Hormones in the mammalian reproductive tract;




Gondatrophin releasing hormone (GnRH)

hypothalamus and pituitary

Responsible for the release of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinising Hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

pituitary gland

FSH regulates the development, growth, pubertal maturation, and reproductive processes of the body.

Luteinising Hormone (LH)

Pituitary gland

Controls the length and sequence of the female menstrual cycle.

In males, it stimulates the testes to produce androgen

Testosterone (TT)


Encourages the development of male sexual characteristics

Oestrogen (OR)


Encourages the development of female sexual characteristics

Progesterone (PRO)

mainly by the corpus luteum in the ovary and by the placenta

A Female hormone, Progesterone prepares the lining (endometrium) of the uterus to receive and sustain the fertilized egg and so permits pregnancy.

Oxytocin (OXT)


Used in childbirth and lactation, contracts the uterus during birth and the mammary glands post- pregnancy to produce milk.

Task 3;

Describe the stages of sexual reproduction in selected animals;


Copulation, there are varied methods for horses to breed including natural and artificial insemination. Both methods are effective under different circumstances. For example, a breeder who wishes to breed one horse with another but one is far away may wish to have a mare artificially inseminated by the stallion's sperm that has been collected and sent.

When horses mate, it can take as less as 5 minutes, the male mounts the female, penetrates and ejaculates. The mare must be in heat first in order to conceive, the mare is at her most fertile during the last 24 to 48 hours of her cycle and most breeders will begin mating the horses after the second day in her heat cycle for better chances of pregnancy.  Mares signal oestrus and ovulation by urination in the presence of a stallion, raising the tail and revealing the vulva. A stallion, approaching with a high head, will usually nip and nudge the mare, as well as sniff her urine to determine her readiness for mating.


Once the mating process has finished, fertilisation will happen, this is the union of the male and female zygotes (sperm and egg) during reproduction to form a zygote (resulting cell of the union of the sperm and egg).


Once fertilized, the egg remains in the oviduct for approximately 5.5 more days, and then descends into the uterus. The initial single cell combination is already dividing by this point. The egg will then attach itself to the uterus wall on about the 16th day for the gestational period.


A horse's gestation usually last about 11 months. After implantation, the embryo can be seen on ultra sound at about 21days and a heartbeat should be visible by about day 23. True implantation - invasion into the endometrial of any sort - does not occur until about day 35 of pregnancy with the formation of the endometrial cups, and true formation of the placenta has not commenced until about day 40-45 and not completed until about 140 days of pregnancy. The foetus gender can be determined by day 70 of the gestation using ultrasound. Halfway through gestation the foetus is the size of between a rabbit and an average sized dog. The most sudden foetal development occurs in the last 3 months of pregnancy when 60% of foetal growth occurs.

Parturition (Foaling);

Domestic mares that are due to give birth are usually separated from other horses for the safety of the mare and the unborn foal and to allow humans to interact and interfere with the birth if any problems occur. Labour is very rapid in comparison with most human births as it usually lasts no more than 30 minutes a horse in labour will usually be vocal, kick at her belly, lay on the floor and pace or paw at the floor. A successful birth can happen anything from 3 weeks before or after the mares due date, anything out of these guidelines and a vet may have to be called to induce the horse or assist with the birth and check the late or premature foal for any abnormalities. Observing the mare on a daily basis is the best indication of impending birth. Within one week of birth, the foal will "drop," settling lower in the mare's belly. Her hind end relaxes during the final two weeks and it will appear lower in proximity to her tail. When the mare's vulva relaxes and elongates, foaling is imminent. The foal will appear front hooves or muzzle first (In most cases) and will be passed through the vagina in the placenta.


The male dog will become very excited when introduced to a receptive bitch, sniffing and licking at her vulva. He will mount her rear quarter and penetrate causing two glands directly behind the penis to swell considerably.

In response, the bitch's vulva will clamp around this swelling; this is referred to as a tie, and is the moment when the dog and bitch become "stuck" together. This period typically lasts from fifteen to thirty minutes, and it is at this point that sperm are being delivered to waiting eggs.


Fertilisation in dogs is assisted by copulation due to the swelling of the genitals, assuring the sperm reaches the egg. Fertilisation can then commence by the meeting of the gametes (sperm and egg, male and female sex cells).


Implantation is when the embryo sticks itself to the uterus wall for protection. Implantation in pregnant dogs occurs on around the 19th day, it is different for different breeds of dog.


After implantation to the uterus wall, the embryo will continue to divide from a single celled organism to a foetus. The foetus will continue to grow in the uterus along with others, depending on the breed of dog generally the bigger the dog the bigger the litter size. By day 22 the foetuses will be developing spinal cords and eyes, this is the stage where the puppies are most susceptible to defects. Gestation will usually last around 63 to 65 days in a dog.


The first stage of parturition in a dog can take anything from 8- 18 hours, it is helpful to know how many puppies the dog is expecting as the birth of each puppy and the labour in between can last from half an hour to 4 hours. If the dog is expecting more puppies and has gone longer than 4 hours, a vet should be called as she is probably struggling. About 98% of the time, dogs will give birth successfully, by themselves.

Firstly, dogs copulation period is very varied and can take hours, horses are more predictable as their copulation is around 5 minutes.

Fertilisation in both species is very similar, as in humans, the gametes meet and creates a zygote. Except dogs genitalia will swell to ensure the delivery of the sperm to the egg.

Implantation happens in a similar manner in both animals but at different times. The horse on the 16th day and the dogs on about the 19th day.

In the horse, the gestation period is significantly longer considering most horses only give birth to one foal. The average litter size of a dog is 4-5 and this is surprising as the gestation period is so short.

Parturition in the dog can be naturally, a lot more time consuming in comparison to the horse due to having multiple offspring although dogs tend to be assisted more by humans and so this could be a contributor to the fast delivery of a large litter of puppies.


  • Unknown. (1999).

Definition of luteinising hormone.


  • Kelly Roper. (unknown).

Dog heat cycle and breeding.


  • Unknown. (Unknown).

Female dog reproductive System


  • unknown. (unknown).

inheritance and horse reproduction.


  • Unknown. (Unknown).

The Reproductive Tracts.


  • Stephen Champion, BSc (Hons) BVM&S MRCVS, Veterinary Surgeon. (Unknown).

The Reproductive Organs of the Female Horse.


Clark, NJ (PRWEB) April 26, 2012

Until now, choosing a mattress was based on guesswork. Typical actions were done by visiting a showroom and lying down on a few sample beds for a few minutes taking a quick sleep while trying to choose a mattress. No matter how carefully you choose, there was always the possibility that six months later your aching back and neck would tell you that you made a mistake. Not anymore.

The answer is a Luxurious Horse Hair Mattress. Horse hair mattresses are the highest quality mattresses manufactured today. These mattresses are considered one of the best beds on the market. Horse hair mattresses can last for years and years. Orange Mattress – Custom Bedding mattresses are all handcrafted by a highly skilled craftsman. Average mattresses need to be replaced after 5-10 years for various reasons. They may get filled with mites and other unpleasant elements which can accumulate. Horse hair mattresses are one of the only types of mattresses that never decay and they actually repel mites. They are completely hypoallergenic. Horse hair is even healthy as a pillow.

Horse hair is one of the few natural materials that is comfortable to sleep on and doesn’t absorb any water. When you have enough curled horse hair in a pile with springs and surrounded by breathable fabric, it creates a springy cloud that allows air and moisture to move right through it. It allows you to sleep continuously without being disturbed by your body’s normal temperature changes and perspiration. Most people perspire an amount equal to a few glasses of water every night. A horse hair mattress will wick the moisture away from the bed, whereas a typical foam bed or foam/spring combination will absorb it like a sponge.

As far as comfort goes, it is totally different experience from your typical quilted foam spring mattress. It is sturdy while having loft and resilience. While it can be the best mattress, we encourage trying out each mattress in order to decide which variety is best for each individual experience. Custom Bedding even makes horse hair toppers.

Orange Mattress – Custom Bedding has been producing handcrafted Horse hair mattresses for over 100 years. Some of our equipment is even the same from our forefathers. Come down to try out these authentic mattresses in our new showroom 77 Central Ave. Clark, NJ 07066 inside the Target shopping Center or you can call us at (732) 428-4125

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Do you love watching birds and feeding them? Wondering what to put in the bird feeders? Birds could be herbivorous, carnivorous or omnivorous. Though most of them eat seeds, worms, plants, sap, berries, suet, nuts or meat, some are selective and will not touch all the available food. If you are a bird lover and love feeding them, you must identify the different types of birds and give them food that they might enjoy. Here is some information that might help you.

Dietary Habits of Birds

Well, there are many food items that might interest birds. While a large number of birds feed on flower nectar, berries, nuts, seeds, tree sap, buds of trees and shrubs, there are various species that eat insects/worms. Some of them hunt and eat small animals, while some scavenge on dead animals. Availability of food is an important factor in determining their eating habits. For instance, sparrows will eat seeds throughout the year, but if seeds are not available, they will eat worms. Birds need to eat more to keep themselves warm during winters. During this time, they are most likely to eat whatever is available. You could give them mealworms, seeds, corn, nuts and meat in winters. Here's some information on different types of food that will attract birds. Put these food items in the bird feeders and you will see a lot of birds visiting your garden.

Granivorous Birds

A good way to attract them would be to put seeds and grains in bird feeders. These birds have strong and stout beaks that help in crushing seed shells. In case you have birds like cardinals, chickadees and nuthatches coming to your garden, you could either put safflower seeds in the feeders or even spread it on the ground. You can even put different types of seeds such as millet, niger seeds and corn. If you often see sparrows, juncos and cardinals in your garden, you could give cracked corn, corn cobs or cornmeal mush. If you wish to keep finches as pets, you could give them grains and even some home-cooked food.

Nectivorous Birds

As the name suggests, nectivorous birds are birds that feed on nectar. They flit from flower to flower in search for nectar. These may even visit nectar feeders. If you wish to attract them, you could keep sugar water. Hummingbirds, sunbirds and honeycreepers are nectivores. Hummingbirds enjoy drinking sugar water. You could even add honey to water. This nectar recipe will certainly help in attracting them. Cardinals, finches, woodpeckers and chickadees will also keep coming back to your garden if you keep sugar water. Some of the nectivorous birds also eat insects.

Frugivorous Birds

Many birds enjoy eating fruits, so you could also keep sliced fruits. For cockatiels, you can keep a pellet based diet that includes fruits, vegetables and seeds. Parrots, channel billed cuckoos, fig birds, toucan, orioles, bowerbirds, and certain types of woodpeckers and doves enjoy having fruits. They have solid and deep beaks that help them to eat fruits. You can feed them fruits and berries that grow in your region. Raisins, grapes, pears, oranges, bananas, peaches and apple are some of the fruits that will attract fruit-eating birds. Do cut the fruits into small slices. You could also place specialized formula for frugivorous birds.

Insectivorous Birds

Many birds need live food. You could get mealworms from the pet stores for them. Swallows, warblers, flycatchers, kingfishers and lyrebird, catbirds, eastern bluebird, chickadees, nuthatches and certain types of woodpeckers are insectivores. Warblers are often referred to as generalists as their diet comprises a wide variety of insects. Woodpeckers, nuthatches and chickadees often feed on larvae or insects that are present in the crevices of the bark of the trees. Blackbirds, crows and bluebirds often feed on bugs, caterpillars or grubs on the ground. Swallows, swifts, warblers and flycatchers feed on flying insects.

Omnivorous Birds

The birds that eat insects, meat, seeds as well as fruit are placed in the category of omnivorous birds. Ducks, blue jays, woodpeckers, emu, crows and quails are examples of birds that eat worms, insects, insect larvae, meat, fruits and seeds. Certain types of finches feed on berries, seeds as well as insects. These birds practically eat anything that can be digested. They will eat anything ranging from nuts, suet, baked goods such as bread crumbs, crackers, pancakes, soaked dried fruit, meat, insects or other leftover kitchen scraps.

Carnivorous Birds

Birds that primarily eat meat are referred to as carnivores. These are also called birds of prey. Birds such as kites, falcons, hawks, vultures and eagles hunt and eat small mammals, birds, fish and reptiles. Some of them hunt and eat specific types of animals. For instance, sharp-skinned hawks have a specialized diet that mainly includes robins, warblers and sparrows whereas ospreys are fish-eaters. They may have different hunting habits. While some may capture their prey independently, some of them may hunt in groups. Some of them even snatch or steal their prey from other birds. Bald eagles and peregrine falcons are examples of such carnivorous birds.

If you are keen on finding out about different kinds of birds and their eating habits, you must also try to understand more about their anatomy. You might have seen many birds nibbling on seeds. Well, their cone-shaped beak makes it easier to eat hard seeds. Birds like finches, sparrows and cardinals use their thick beak to eat seeds. Some might also adapt to their environment. If you are a bird-lover, you can keep such food items in the feeders to attract several birds to your garden. This way birds will keep coming back for food and you can have a great time watching them.

Los Angeles, Ca (PRWEB) August 18, 2011 is announcing the release of a dog bed purchasing guide that will help millions of dog owners select the perfect dog bed for their dog. With over hundreds of dog beds to choose from one has to stop and wonder, "its only a dog bed, right?" But the important reality is that no two dogs are the same, even if they are from the same breed. A dog’s stature and sleeping habits play the biggest role in determining which dog bed is best.

A dog’s size will determine the proper construction of the bed. Large breed dogs start off small and cuddly but can quickly outgrow and ruin their puppy bed. Certain dog beds are simply not designed to take the punishment from the cute little pup as it morphs into a 100 lbs beast. Most dog beds in these cases 'bottom out' and loose their orthopedic support. Larger dogs also age faster and thus are prone to arthritis and other bone related disabilities. A large dog bed that can contain and support the dogs weight is crucial for a good nights rest.

Observing a dogs sleeping habits is pivotal in selecting a bed your dog will actually sleep on. The biggest problem dog owners often come to realize is when their dog rarely sleeps on the newly purchased dog bed. Owners scratch their head in confusion and blame the dog when it's most likely the bed itself. All dogs have different sleeping habits; some like to curl up while others like to sprawl out or sleep on their backs. It is important to select a bed that will contain your dog. Your dogs head or paws should not be forced to rest off the edge or supports unless they naturally come to rest that way.

Dogs that usually sleep outdoors will sleep in a tight curled position to preserve warmth. Indoor dogs may nestle or nest for the same reason along with the fact that it provides security. However, sleeping in a tightly curled position is not the most relaxed for a dog. In this position a dog will not have a restful nights sleep; their muscles would have to be tense to hold this position. A bumper bed or donut dog bed with walls would give these kind of sleepers the maximum comfort and sense of security during nap time.

Lastly you have the dogs that love to stretch out and occupy the whole bed just like us humans. For dogs that sleep with these tendencies it is important to select a dog bed that can contain the entire dog toe-to-toe. A dog pillow bed or large dog bed will have your pooch stretched out and counting sheep faster than he or she can sit for their favorite treat.

Once the owner understands the specific needs of their dog depending on how they sleep, he or she can confidently choose the best dog bed that will provide their pup with the maximum comfort they deserve.

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DogGeekz offers a collection of many of the finest environmentally friendly dog products along with high quality dog supplies. They have a very simple yet strong vision, and that is to live with a deep respect for mother nature and the animals within. From luxury dog beds, dog toys, dog gates, or dog crates you'll be able to find something truly unique to match your dog's personality. Sit. Stay. Shop.

Fish belongs to vertebrate group of organisms living in water bodies, either fresh or marine water. As of date, more than 25,000 fish species are identified and scientists are of the opinion that there are 15,000 more species, which are yet to be identified. The characteristic features of fish are breathing through gills, and presence of paired and unpaired fins that help them in efficient swimming. Besides fins, the body of fish is covered with some sort of protective scales.

Most of the fish species are cold-blooded (or ectothermic) and depend on their surrounding environment to maintain their body temperature. Irrespective of the water chemistry, nearly all water bodies are inhabited by fish. For example, you can find various types of fish in the ocean at such a depth where there is very less or no light penetration. Likewise, several fish species are found dwelling in the streams of high mountains. As far as importance of fish is concerned, they are eaten as food and also, reared as pets in fish tanks.

Fish is an important source of food for humans. Enriched with healthy proteins, they are a delicacy for people who eat animal based foods (non-vegetarians). And for aquarists, fish are wonderful pets kept in decorative aquariums. Indeed, rearing them is a relaxing hobby, which you get to enjoy watching colorful fish swimming, playing, and feeding. Since the demand of fish is very high, fish farming and fishing are sources of income for several people. Mentioned below are lists of edible fish and aquarium fish types.

Types of Fish to Eat

Both freshwater and marine fish are consumed as human food since time immemorial. In the market, they are sold fresh, dried, canned, or pickled. Research studies have shown that fish-derived proteins and nutrients are healthier than those of poultry and meat. What's more, many saltwater fish species contain a high percentage of omega-3 essential fatty acids, which help in treating cardiovascular diseases. Commonly eaten fish are listed below.

  • Anchovy
  • Abalone
  • African butter fish
  • Bass
  • Barramundi
  • Basa
  • Black drum
  • Bluegill sunfish
  • Bream
  • Brill
  • Carp
  • Catfish
  • Clam
  • Coley
  • Cod fish
  • Crab
  • Croaker
  • Crayfish
  • Crawfish
  • Cuttlefish
  • Dab fish
  • Dogfish
  • Eel
  • Flounder
  • Grouper
  • Gurnard
  • Haddock
  • Hake
  • Halibut
  • Herring
  • Hoki
  • Huss
  • Jacksmelt
  • Ling
  • Lobster
  • Mackerel
  • Mahi mahi
  • Milkfish
  • Monkfish
  • Mullet
  • Opakapaka
  • Orange roughy
  • Oyster
  • Perch
  • Pike
  • Pollock
  • Pompano
  • Redfish
  • Salmon
  • Sardines
  • Scallop
  • Sheepshead
  • Shrimp
  • Skate
  • Sole
  • Swordfish
  • Tilapia
  • Tripletail
  • Trout
  • Tuna
  • Turbot
  • Wahoo
  • Weakfish
  • Whitefish
  • White grunt

Fish products, either canned or pickled, may contain traces of mercury and harmful chemicals. Hence, while purchasing them for consumption purpose, make sure you select those of quality brands. Last but not the least, some edible fish types (e.g. shellfish, sushi) increase the risk of food poisoning, if proper cooking is not done. Thus, correct preparation and cooking of fish is a must to avoid the risk of food poisoning.

Types of Fish for Pets

Depending on whether you want to keep freshwater fish or marine fish, you are required to construct an appropriate aquarium. Marine fish are more varied in color, shape, and size than the freshwater types. But, they need special care and maintenance. Hence, a freshwater aquarium is an ideal choice for a novice aquarist. In the United States, the most commonly kept aquarium fish comprises tropical fish. The list of popular aquarium fish types includes the following.

  • Anemone fish
  • Angelfish
  • African butterfly fish
  • Arowana
  • Banded coral shrimp
  • Barb
  • Betta fish
  • Biota
  • Bala shark
  • Bat fish
  • Black knife fish
  • Black-tailed dascyllus
  • Blennies
  • Butterfly loach
  • Bumblebee goby
  • Catfish
  • Cypriniformes
  • Cherubfish
  • Clownfish
  • Comet
  • Copperband butterfly
  • Cory
  • Cichlid
  • Crab
  • Damsel
  • Danio
  • Discus
  • Elephant nose
  • Fantail fish
  • Goldfish
  • Gourami
  • Guppies
  • Knife fish
  • Labyrinth fish
  • Lionfish
  • Loach
  • Molly
  • Mono
  • Needle nose
  • Oscar fish
  • Pacu
  • Platy
  • Scat
  • Seahorse
  • Shark
  • Shubunkin
  • Silver dollar
  • Spotted puffer fish
  • Squirrel fish
  • Swordtail
  • Tetra fish
  • Tiger Barb
  • Upside down cat
  • Yellowhead jawfish
  • Yellow tang
  • Yellowtail wrasse

In the present scenario, there are different types of fish that are listed in the endangered and near extinction categories. No doubt, some species are already extinct knowingly or unknowingly. But, it is never too late to conserve the extant fish. It is high time that we should stop overfishing, polluting water bodies, and destroying habitat to save this aquatic vertebrate animal. These simple conservatory approaches will surely help preserve fish and other inhabitants of the aquatic ecosystem.

Horses are a part of every child's fantasy. Girls pretend to be princesses living in large castles with a pet unicorn. Boys love to pretend to be knights in shining armor, riding a big black horse. All toddlers love to have a rocking horse as a toy. They get immense joy by imagining horse riding their rocking horses. You may find many varieties of these wooden toys in your local toy shops. But if you have a hidden carpenter inside you and love woodworking, won't you love to build one for your little angel? Then, the following instructions will tell you how to make one in your workshop or garage.



  • Jig saw or band saw
  • Hand saw or table saw
  • Drill with bits at ⅜". ⅝ ", ¾" and 1 ⅜" bits
  • Block plane
  • Divider or compass
  • Clamps
  • File
  • Dust Mask and Hearing Protection

Building Material

  • 1 - 2" x 10" x 8' Spruce
  • Leather-like material for ears
  • Wood glue
  • (14) 2 ½" #10 Screws
  • (10) 1 ¾" #8 Screws
  • (14) ⅜" Plugs
  • Sandpaper (120 and 220 grit)
  • Finish Materials


  • Choose a pattern available from magazines, websites, etc. Choose a design that is simple and easy to build.
  • Draw a full-size paper or a cardboard template of the rocking horse. Keep in mind that all the edges of the wooden rocking horse should be gently rounded. Use non-toxic finishing materials. It should be built from the 2" x 10" x 8' single wood block. Trace the templates onto the wood, and cut the pieces according to the outline. The rockers should be larger than ½", as they should be strong enough to sustain rough handling by a child.
  • Now, cut the wood using the saw you have chosen to trace the outline. Don't forget to mark the important areas where the finishing materials are to be added later on. Keeping the grain of the wood in mind, and cut the wood in a single direction. The direction gives a special look to the head, tail, and mane.
  • Assemble the pieces according to the plan. Wood glue and wood clamps can be used to piece together the wooden parts. Let the glue dry thoroughly before unclamping the wood clamps.
  • Use sandpaper of 220 girt and scrub the wood to remove any unevenness. Then, use the 120 girt sandpaper, to make the surface smoother. Use paint to color your horse, and apply a protective varnish.
  • Use a woolen or nylon rope to make the mane. Use a sturdy cloth material or quilt to make the saddle, as the child must feel comfortable when sitting on it. It should be ¾th the length of your child's legs, and the stirrup should be shorter than the leg of the horse. This gives support to the child when he is sitting on the saddle.

Remember to use a protective gear when making it. Now, you are ready to surprise your child with your homemade rocking horse. Enjoy the joyful giggles and innumerable smiles of your little angel rocking on it. Making it will surely make you the 'Dad in Shining Amour' in the eyes of your child.

Freshwater aquarium fish are easy to care and very enjoyable pets. They can easily live in a small 5 gallon tank and love swimming in a 100 gallon tank. You can house your pet in a glass or acrylic tank. Use different substrates and decorative ornamental pieces, like rocks, live plants, plastic plants, and even some fancy plastic aquarium toys. The tank can be lit up with a bulb and you can place a filter to keep the water clean. You can even place a heater to provide some warmth to them. You can use normal tap water as the medium for your pet to live in.

As an aquarium enthusiast, you can choose from a variety of fish. You should keep in mind that the fish should be similar in size to avoid larger ones from picking on the smaller ones or the tiny ones eating up the fins of the larger fish. Also, they should not compete with each other for food, as it will result in starvation and death of the weaker lot. You need to choose the right pet for your aquarium so that they can peacefully exist alongside each other.

Basics of Their Compatibility

Fish are very sensitive and delicate creatures. Any amount of stress can lead to their untimely death. The freshwater fish are divided into 3 categories according to their behavior:

  • Community Fish: They are peace-loving and happy-go-lucky. They do not get into fights and are compatible with all the others. You can safely mix and match different community species in your tank.
  • Semi-aggressive Fish: These are a bit high-strung and will not shy away and would occasionally nip and bite other fish. They tend to be peaceful when small, but as they increase in size they turn into fin-nipping rogues. They will chase and tire the others. They are good for community tanks, but make sure you keep an eye on them as they grow bigger in size.
  • Aggressive Fish: Just as the name suggests, these fish can be called the fighters. They love to pick on little ones and are not compatible with any other species. They can live around with other aggressive ones of their own kind or size. However, they have a habit of bullying weaker ones by pushing them around.

The Compatibility Chart

Category Community Semi-aggressive Aggressive
Anabantids Dwarf Gourami

Flame Gourami

Opaline Gourami

Pearl Gourami

Siamese Fighting Fish/Betta Fish

Spike-tailed Paradise fish

Honey Gourami

Kissing Gourami

Black Paradise fish
Aquarium Catfish Banjo Catfish


Chinese Algae Eater


Green Catfish

Leopard Catfish


Spotted Catfish

Upside Down Catfish

Bumble Bee Catfish
Charachins Black Neon Tetra

Black Phantom Tetra

Cardinal Tetra

Congo Tetra

Emperor Tetra

Flame Tetra

Glowlight Tetra

Head and Tail Light Tetra

Neon Tetra Fish

Rummy-nosed Tetra

Serpae Tetra




Penguin Fish

X-Ray Fish

Bleeding Heart Tetra

Black Widow

Buenos Aires Tetra

Silver Dollar

Red Belly Piranha
Cichlids Freshwater Angelfish

Blue Acara







Green Terror

Jack Dempsey

Red Oscar

Cyprinids Cherry Barb

Bala (Tri-Color) Shark

Black Shark

Blue Danio

Giant Danio

White Cloud

Zebra Danio

Harlequin Rasbora

Flying Fox

Green Tiger Barb

Red-tailed Shark

Rosy Barb

Tiger Barb

Tinfoil Barb

Killifish Lyretail
Livebearers Guppy fish



Swordtail Knife Livebearer
Loaches Clown Loach

Dwarf Loach

Horseface Loach

Unclassified Australian Rainbowfish

Boesmani Rainbow fish

Boesman's Rainbow fish

Bumble Bee Goby

Elephant Nose

Rainbow fish

Archer Butterfly Fish

This chart will help you know which ones are compatible. You can try keeping some of the community fish with the semi-aggressive species, but make sure you always have an eye on them. Do not introduce the aggressive ones to the tank, else most of your peace-loving fish will end up dead.


Today is life-the only life you are sure of. Make the most of today. Get interested in something. Shake yourself awake. Develop a hobby. Let the winds of enthusiasm sweep through you. Live today with gusto. ― Dale Carnegie.

A hobby is not only about spending spare time, it is about spending quality time to rediscover and rejuvenate yourself, so as to maintain a healthy body and mind. It can be a way to nurture your creativity and enhance your skills.

Women, in particular, are required to take out some time from their busy and grueling schedule of duties and responsibilities, to pursue a hobby and spend time with oneself. A lot of things are required to be taken into consideration including your choice, lifestyle, available time, and of course, your budget, while choosing the right hobby.

Interesting Hobbies for Women


Painting and art is a great hobby, and can help you relax and refresh yourself. You might have had an interest in art in your childhood, but could not pursue it due to some reason. But you can start again with the 'it's never too late to begin' attitude and rekindle that interest. Learn the different forms of art and painting, like water colors, oil painting, glass painting, mosaic and acrylic painting, to name a few, and explore a unique world of painting. You can also gift your friends with your work or just adorn your home with them.


Cooking is regarded by many women as a stereotypical duty and not a hobby. But it can be one of the cool hobbies and you can easily feel the difference between cooking as a duty and as a hobby. It can be real fun to try out some new recipes, relying solely on your culinary experience. Trying some unusual ingredients and combination can be a totally different adventurous experience than everyday cooking. If you want to further enhance your culinary skills, then attending cooking classes can be a great idea.

Food Decorating

A closely associated hobby with cooking is decorating food items, like desserts, cakes, pastries, cookies, salad, etc. Now this hobby can be a little more enjoyable and interesting for many women, as it seems to be more creative than cooking. If you want to seriously involve yourself with this hobby, you can always attend some decorating classes. With this hobby you may be able to start your own business in this field. Besides, these decorated cakes or pastries or cookies can make some amazing gifts, and what can be a lovelier gift for your loved ones than the one designed and decorated by you.


Photography often ranks high among the group of easy-to-start good hobbies for women. All you need to do is to invest in a good quality digital camera, or you may already have one. An ability to study the direction of light, great observational skills, and a creative mind, are essential to become a photographer, and you can learn them gradually over a period of time. There are different types of photography like black and white photography, commercial photography, aerial photography, infrared photography, digital photography, architectural photography, etc. If you have a creative mind and believe you can excel as a photographer, then you can sharpen your skills by attending some classes on photography.


Those who love to write poems and stories, need not think about another hobby, as they are already enjoying one. But those who have never tried creative writing, they can also start writing and experience being a writer. It is not so hard to start writing, as assumed by many. You can either begin by developing the habit of writing diaries or letters to your friends, and over a period of time, you will develop the skills required to become a writer.

Jewelry Making

Glittering and mesmerizing jewelry is always fascinating for women. Almost every woman loves to wear them, then why not make jewelry making a hobby? Unleash your creativity in designing unconventional jewelry for you and your family, and earn appreciation and compliments from your friends and neighbors. Attending professional classes can make this hobby very productive, and in the course of time, it may become a lucrative business or career for you.

Candle Making

Candle making can be real fun for women and besides, they do not require any special skills to be learned or developed. It does not require much time and can help you relax. All you have to do is to purchase some candle making supplies available in a number of stores and then make different types of scented and decorating candles to adorn your home. Once you get a hand on it, you can also sell them to earn a good amount.


Dancing can be fun and if it is included in your hobby list, then nothing is better than this. There are lots of women who take dancing as their career too. So, if you have those charms and moves, that can make you a perfect performer, then why not join few classes and become a perfectionist. You can go for ballroom dance, hip hop, belly dance, jazz, traditional, salsa, rock and roll, rumba and the list is huge. It is the best stress reliever and can also help you keep your body in shape.


Having a hobby like swimming will not only give you happiness in doing it, but will also provide you with numerous health benefits. You can learn swimming at any age. It is considered to be one of the best exercise, as it involves the movement of nearly all body parts. If you have a pool of your own, then take a dip and just relax. If this hobby is your passion, then it can bring you name, fame, and money.


Gardening is one of the relaxing hobbies that one can enjoy. You can maintain your garden according to your need or liking. You can have a garden full of beautiful flowers or can also grow various types of vegetables. But this hobby requires hard work, dedication, and care. It is very important to have proper knowledge of the plants and their habitat to pursue this hobby successfully.


If writing is already your hobby, then you can further explore it by blogging. Through blogs, you can express your opinions on various current topics, share your knowledge and thoughts, and also learn from others. In fact, blogs can give you the opportunity to connect with the entire world and even establish great online friendships with like-minded people. It can help you keep in touch with your friends and families, when you are away from them or traveling for a long time.

Horse Riding

Horse riding is just the right hobby for those women, who love horses and are looking for an out of the box hobby. In fact, it is a great way to explore your surrounding, discover some less traveled terrains and unwind yourself from all the troubles of modern life. It also helps bring you closer to nature.

Rock Climbing

Rock climbing is another challenging hobby for women, who love adventures. You can opt for both outdoor, as well as indoor rock climbing. This hobby is literally a test of your endurance, agility, balance and above all, mental strength, and can be a really thrilling and challenging task. Proper climbing techniques and specialized climbing equipments are must for rock climbing. So, the first step for you will be to learn the basics of this activity in an indoor rock climbing gym, before going to explore the outdoor settings.

Learning a Foreign Language

Knowing more than one language is considered by many as an interesting quality about an individual. In fact, your friends can be quite impressed with your ability to read and write a language, other than your mother tongue. This unusual hobby can help you explore other cultures and, even open up new career opportunities. Moreover, if you are planning to visit a new country, then learning its language can help a lot in communicating with the local people. To begin with, you can check out the books available in your local library. If it is not working, then you can enroll yourself in language classes.


Hiking is a great hobby that comes with a number of benefits. First of all, it helps keep you physically and mentally fit, and unlike other types of exercises, it gives you new and exciting experiences. When you go out and explore the world around you, you come closer to the nature and marvel at its beauty, and meet new people and new challenges. You do not need any formal training to pursue this hobby. All you need is a good pair of sturdy and comfortable footwear, and a small backpack containing your first aid kit, trail map, bug spray, water and snacks, and your fully charged cell phone.

These are only a few of the numerous fun hobbies for women. In addition to these, knitting, singing, flower arranging, tutoring, are some other good hobbies that women can consider. Hope the hobbies mentioned in this article can meet your requirement for a creative and useful hobby, and help you relax and enjoy. However, there are many more hobbies, which you can discover simply by sparing a thought for your likes and dislikes.